The world happens to be material and cognizable. Miracles can happen, but are of no practical value. Evolution is interpreted as the self-organization of structures. Its first stage is the non-organic nature. The second one comprises biological systems - from a cell up to a herd with Target-oriented Functions (TF): metabolism, growth, reproduction, and protection of an individual, struggle and cooperation, integration into communities. TF manifest itself in needs and motives and is being realized through intellect. Intellect is the control system using models and signals. Its highest manifestation is creation, i.e. building of new models. Human being is a herd creature possessing of TF and creative intellect. It happened to convert a herd into community, generated technical progress and new TF- ideologies and launched the third social stage of evolution. It manifested itself in a variety of states, economic growth and continuous movement towards maturing of civilization - forming of mankind as a unified system. Technical evolution is intended to be the next stage of development founded on the basis of the artificial intellect, which can transform not only natural life, but also the very human being.Once I have developed my own approach to knowledge of biological systems: cell, organism, intellect, individual, society. It combines in itself a heuristic model and an investigation.
Working algorithm: 1. Choice of a hypothesis. 2. Making of a structural scheme. 3. Picking up of formulas and factors. 4. Computer assembling of a model. Adjusting of figures. 5. Model investigation in statics and dynamics. 6. Making experiments and analyzing of test and model results. 7. Putting corrections into both, the hypothesis and the model.
Every object was thoroughly investigated. Atthe department for biological cybernetics of the Glushkov institute there numbered about 50 employees Within 30 years there were defended 8 doctor and 26 candidate theses, as well as a number of research monographs and articles were written.
Nevertheless, I would not give the desired for the valid: our models reflected living systems with such a great degreeof generalization, that they were good only for understanding of functioningprinciples, but not for the practical usage, which requires deepen investigationsand more complicated models. But even they would remain probabilistic because it is impossible to model "living systems" self-organization. Though, without such models, the controlling would be blind at all.
My life was devoted to surgery. But not only to it: there has been an engineering diploma, cybernetics, investigations and models of constitution, intellect, psychology and society. There have been pupils, their dissertations, written articles and books.
I always wanted to understand: What is the complexity of the world? What is truth? How functions the intellect of an animal, of a human being, of a society? And at last, what is the future of humanity? Is there "an arrow of progress" in evolution?
I am 88 years old, writing of a pure interest, without expecting acknowledgement. Therefore, there will not be here any references or polemics. I aware, that all has been known already. I would not overestimate "substantiation" of my philosophy; it is very likely a bit amateurish. I would like to form for myself a true notion of the world, at least in a general way. At the same time - to clear up whether an idea of happiness is a realistic one for a man and humanity. And how to achieve it?
It means - systems: elements, relations and energy. They can be measured and modeled.
In this respect, some words about "miracles" which can not be explained from the physical point of view. I have never observed them personally, but it has been written such a lot of stuff on the subject, that I fear to state: "It might never happen". My deceased friend, physicist and academician Vadim Lashkaryov used to say: "Another physics exists. Sometimes it closes with our usual one and then miracles occur". I don't feel like to comment, but I am sure, they are of very little value for our material life. Though, let's remember: electromagnetic waves have existed all the time but they never influenced people before they were discovered. Now it is impossible to imagine our society without radio and television and nuclear bombs threatening the mankind. Therefore, the problem of extra-sensor phenomena remains open. Let's wait a little.
The respond does not require drawing of the God. Though the origin of the initial matter still remains unclear, complexity development can be explained by self-organization phenomenon. This idea was developed by I.R.Prigozhyn. Simple example: frost patterns on the window glass: water, cold and glass. Breathe on it and the pattern melt away. In half an hour - some new picture and a new pattern.
I don't feel like presenting the concept of self-organization in details, but the point is the following: The matter happens to be unbalanced. Its particles are unstable; they can form combinations and compound structures. Internal energy fluctuations, sporadic external effects, positive inverse forces, both internal and external contribute to this process. This complication process is conditioned by bifurcation, i.e. by the choice of one of the alternatives, predetermining further sequence of synthesis stages and new bifurcation. For all it, the memory on the nearest alternative "predecessors" of the given complication stage is being involved in this choice, reflecting a peculiar tendency, the purposefulness of changes. (Heel's theory of "the unity of opposites" is reflected in it.). In combination with differences on non-stability determining various self organization rates, when occurring in related objects, this phenomenon explains "evolution breaks-through", when very fast changes occur in some directions (in such a way the human brain had been developed or "passionarity explosions " of Leo Gumiliov manifested itself in the history of mankind). The self-organization is unpredictable in all the details: it is possible to make only some feasible tendency prognosis. For all it, the inverse movement directed towards complexity disintegration up to particles ending in chaos might be observed at its every stage. But "the new order formed of chaos"(statement by Prigozhin) is supposed to be different.
Any evolution presents itself as a self-organization process. It began from the moment of the first explosion, prior to what the matter and energy were pressed in minimum volume. It was the starting point of the rise of chain of ever complicating structures: atoms, non-organic molecules (minerals) - organic substances. It followed by biological evolution of "live" systems: cells-organisms-communities-biocenosis.
1. Program of self-regulation and integrity maintaining.
2. Stock systems with "working" and control sub-systems, i.e. intellect.
3. Metabolism: external and internal.
4. Preservation (in the structure) of the "self-organization layer" forming a new diversity - the source of both evolution and "pathology" - unstability resulting in decay.
5. Excessive reproduction preserving species identity (for reproduction) in combination with behavior diversity for the best species selection.
6. Combining of competition and species cooperation with further integration into more complicated system. In general: organization, regulation and "intelligence".
Every new evolution stage is characterized by a new "self-organization layer", introduced by a new structure code. It results in forming of a new and more developed system class:
a) Molecular structures, i.e. genes and protein generated a variety of species. Neuron structures formed a variety of intellect and behavior modes: from a herd to a human being inclusive;
b) Word structures plus technique generated a variety of communities and states;
c) Technical facilities structures in combination with Artificial Intellect promise to introduce a new self-organization stage, and namely, technical evolution.
There are two doubtful issues in interpreting of the self-organization as the only evolution source when comparing with the God:
1. What is the origin of the "initial matter" existed before the first explosion?
2. Ability of material particles to form combinations exceeds the disintegration tendency of created compound structures. For this very reason, "evolution vector" is aimed towards system complication. Though feasible complication is limited by certain conditions. (Or reaching the limit of potential resources?). Therefore, the evolution on the known space objects never exceeded the level of non-organic molecules and among biological species on the Earth only a human being moved so far.
Even the first cells demonstrated the new step of matter complication - control organs with Target-oriented Functions (TF) (surviving, reproduction, expansion and perfection), consisted of models, represented by DNA-code and RNA-signals. Further, models complication run through cell and organism specialization. In particular, through forming of neuron structures in brain (intellect!) and through control organs with Collective Intellect and sign -and -word models in a community.
Models (in general) are the result of information compression (structural simplicity) of an object. They present an object in a simplified and distorted way. Model generalization concept means a simplification degree. Utmost expression of generalization is a model-sign (hieroglyph). Model as an object substitute is being distinguished only by "intelligent" systems with installed coding patterns: "object-model".
General Principle of matter complication:
Self-organization ---> (organization + selection) = evolution.
Organization is system ordering; structures and functions allotting "working" and controlling" sub-systems ("intellect"). The latter accumulate models, providing for implementation of Target-oriented Functions (TF): supporting integrity, surviving, propagation, expansion and perfection. At the every evolution stage TF are brought about by models with various codes of different complexity. At the same time they are worked out in detail: first, as expansion of biological needs nomenclature, then, in the society, as "artificial" estimation structures: ideologies and values.
In this respect it is possible to speak about contraposition of systems organization and related to it controllability and predictability from one side, and
self-organization-the source of uncertainty, including risk of chaos growth, from another. However, organization (Intellect!) assumes some degree of self-organization regulating through return link. But not complete one.
What would we have as a result? Would materialistic science allow to understand the world, to make forecasts and to control it? The answer is: "Yes". But only with some stipulation: besides self-organization there may exist "another physics"!
It is a combination of various object models from word descriptions to mathematical formulas and physical facilities simulating an original.
The truth is formed by the intellect, it belongs to it and can be understood by another intellect with model elements, saved in its memory.
Intellect controls objects through models according to optimality criteria, which reflect Target-oriented Functions of an Intellect subject.
There is no mystic in intellect: it can be modeled by technical means.
There is the simplest intellect in a cell in the form of genes. Animal brain has been the next stage of development. Intellect attributes are brain (location of models, basic control organs), receptors, executive organs, energy source ("body").
Models: "words", "phrases" and short "texts"can interact with one another both separately and together with accents upon some parts of ensemble, determining new meanings.
Models operation signifies changing of their energy (activity). It is generated by elements (in particular, by neurons), is transmitted by signals and fades when overcoming signal resistance.
The main source of the live intellect activity is sense centers, which are derivatives of demands and desires of those, embodying TF. The situation is the following: intellect controls objects and senses control intellect itself. But live intellect possesses of one very important quality: models can be trained to be more active and to acquire new links between themselves. Because of it intellect is under constant change and transformation. This is the key point of adaptation and creation. It belongs to self-organization as well.
Intellect complication stages reflect evolution periods:
a) cells of molecular models and signals;
b) multi-cells organisms including a human being with models of neurons and signals of nervous-impulses;
c) community with models and word signals;
d) technical systems with their specific models and signals.
Evolution happened to develop the General Intellect Algorithm (GIA) embodied in the consequent activation of models due to programs, realizing "control portions" from a primitive reflex to complicated Functional Acts (FA). They serve to achieve a Target-oriented Function (TF) of an intellect subject. FA consists of independent stages: perception, recognizing, evaluation, forecasting, target determining, planning, taking decision and action.
Each FA stage has its own program, being checked on reality criteria and needs activation as to FA- demands and motives. Demand is happened to act as a regulator, demonstrating the grade of TF-achieving, for example, to satisfy a sense of hunger for TF surviving.
Motives (or desires) mean "action feelings". To satisfy each demand, expressed by a specific feeling there is the "elementary action" - desire, motive. To eat - because of a hunger, to run and to fight - because of a fear, to investigate - because of curiosity, to make orders when one happens to be a leader and so on. Motives give energy for action programs.
In details, FA-steps can be described as follows: perception means receptor coding of irritant energy and its "initial model making ". Recognition is the search and activation of the same model defining it in a system of others and including demand and motive models.
The estimate means determination of usefulness at the given demand state. Target designation means target choice proceeding from motives and initial model. Planning is the choice of the saved action model and estimation of action "hardships".
Solution is to determine whether the "desire" is more than "hardships". In case, it does, "action" is involved to fulfill the plan through activation of models controlled by "affector".
Perception, estimation and saving of results corresponding to the plan.
Stepwise activities take place inside a "phrase" of integral Functional Acts (FA). " Word" activation of the next stage is not accompanied by removal of preceding ones, but only lows theiractivity. In due course, the FA "phrase" is being reduced in steady memoryup to some most active "words', stages, which namely and represent FA in steady memory.
There are some more subsidiary programs in real FA.
Simultaneously, intellect investigates "mental steps" (recognition, forecasting, planning) of many FA with various orientation, importance and duration. They are combined in subordination hierarchy according to targets, time and minuteness and are checked as to non-discrepancy and importance according to demands and opportunities.
To bring the most important FA to the end, i.e. to action, a system of priorities choice has to exist, which reinforces the most important FA at a given moment, inhibiting at the same time the remaining ones. For this purpose the System of Inhibition Strengthening (SIS) exists in our Artificial Intellect models (AI).
In a content sense, consciousness is constant reflection of the position of an intellect subject ("the I" model) in the coordinates: space, time, relations with other objects, senses and motives related to TF. In informational sense, consciousness is a selective activity intensification of "phrases" from models- "coordinates", in which the principal "word", "the I" model is to be available. Consciousness mechanism is served due to constant following "coordinates", comparing their activity and selecting the most active model for introduction into SIS. In its turn it gives an additional intensification to the selected model and it turns into "thought". At the next moment, SIS is to switch to another model. This exactly is "flow of consciousness".
It seems important for me to denote the idea of "consciousness level". It is determined on the part of "the I" model's objects of tracing and controlling by "thoughts" .
The first level is available with animals and small children: observing of external world, determining of its irritants. Responses are switched on automatically. At the second level, planning and execution of activity, the complete FA, including speech are added. The third level means following thoughts, their controlling, including switching to unreality or penetrating into other person's thoughts. "Upper limit" of this level is indistinct up to full alienation from reality.
Sub-consciousness is represented by activities with slowed down (from SIS) models. It exercises selection of "candidates" to consciousness for the next SIS switching, provides for automatic observing of external and internal world, as well as for executing the simplest FA. However, it is possible that even some complex psychic processes, including creation occur in sub-consciousness. It is manifested in dreams, intuition and aha factors. Owing to Freud, the teaching on sub-consciousness has acquired further development. Psychologists search ways to use sub-consciousness for treating illnesses and even for increasing intellect potential. It is being used in hypnosis, suggestion, controlled dreams, meditation, yoga and a lot of psycho technique methods. In particular, even computer games, including creating virtual reality use sub-consciousness. Involving new technologies promises to delete a distinction between a reality and invented worlds.
Brain physiology offers analogs of our SUT as combination of functions of Reticulate Formation, mechanisms of Ukhtomskiy's dominant, inductive inhibition of neuron ensembles surrounded by an ensemble of excited and successive inhibition of the most active model.
Intellect self-organization is showed in forming of new models, neuron ensembles, due to establishing links between accidentally excited models (academician Ivan Pavlov!) and increasing their activity in a result of training. Important is "phenomenon of idea fixe", excitation movement in a circle of selected (fallen into consciousness) models with increase of their activity by training.
When it relates to estimation models and programs of interrelation with people, then changes in intellect "reasonableness" may occur manifested in discrepancy between subject's activity and social norms and even biological TF. In it the symptoms of psychopathology are traced
Elementary mind of animals provides for implementation of instincts through models of IMAGES and motions. Complication of GIA with a human being is showed in programs of speech, creation and higher consciousness level, when not only the outer world, but ones own thoughts, as well as penetration into other person's thoughts may serve as an observation object, controlled by active "the I" model.
Thus, thoughts would obtain a chance to exist autonomously and to develop independently: this is "world of thoughts" - unreality field: imagination, hypothesis, creation, science, art.
A human being intellect is "metaphor" like. It means, that various "texts" from detail models may correspond to one general, word or image model ("phrase"). Let's remember, at least, sayings and proverbs, substituting large text fragments with some clever words "from another opera", the meaning of which can be understood only by those, dedicated to. "Metaphor characteristics "participate in creation processes. There based on them fantastic dreams, when criterion of image reality, prevailing imagination in the state of vigilance is switched off. Humor and beauty are likely to belong to this kind of phenomena.
Upon the hierarchy of model generalization and metaphor characteristics a creation algorithm is based, picking out an optimal variant among various variant "texts" of detailed models, which can satisfy task and feasibility criterion.
Human communities possess Collective Intellect (CI), consisting of hierarchy of participant intellects and acting through their speech.
Each intellect has its own shortcomings:
Due to the above shortcomings, it is difficult to "prove the truth", to persuade skeptics. The matter is that persons with different estimations and knowledge opportunities react differently upon one and the same complex object, forming for it various abstract models, which are badly comparable and often even differ from one another.
This very matter, truth comparability relates to problem of faith, science and religion.
Every piece of information on a complex system of "living type" is probabilistic: our mind is able to form for them only generalized but not detailed models. It means, that by acknowledging these models as identical to original we switch on the trust mechanism. The share of trust depends on the fact, how many system's "fine point," we have ignored by getting knowledge. The narrower the mind, the simpler the models, which it creates, the more distanced they are from the original, the more trust is needed to give one thing for another.
The intellect of a human being and animals includes faith, trust (to parents, leader, "authority") into the needs for TF surviving. As any other need, it differs: skeptic used to doubt everything, trusting person trusts to all. The same is true about scrupulousness as to authorities. For a true believer the words from the Bible book mean more, than one's own senses and estimations.
Science works on getting precise models. For this purpose it has created an instrument of evidences, decreasing a share of faith in truth knowledge. The religion used to substitute all evidences with authorities words. The faith in God grows to be the principal knowledge instrument.
"The social being" happens to be the product of evolution, which has supplemented organic needs with the perfect intellect, provided with expanded memory and creative program.
In combination with the herd existence of his ancestors, these virtues originated the community, which in its turn, has brought a human being to the updated level by adding verbal thinking to the image-bearing one. Intellect has embodied itself in creation: in signs, things, religion, science and art. However man's biological nature manifested in needs has been still preserved and is revealed in the human behavior.
By the way, a human being was formed on the Earth and not beyond its limits. The whole gamut of his fossil men testifies to it, as well as almost full (98%) coincidence of his genes with those of the chimpanzee.
Perfection of a human being manifests itself in rising of his consciousness level and in "broadening his horizons": his knowledge range is enlarging, objects of watching and governing are expanding from external subjects to internal thoughts, to incarnation and to actions with unreal models (art, games).
Behavior is governed by needs: by feelings and motives, by desires and elementary action programs. Together they represent unconditioned reflexes, derivatives of instincts.
1. Self-preservation consists of two programs: (a) fear - defense (to run away or to fight); (b) hunger (to eat). Here also belongs the need to have some property and to make food supply.
2. Reproduction instinct manifests itself in establishing a family. Consists of two components: (a) sex (desire and actions); (b) loving feeling towards children (to caress).
3. Herd instinct of a human being is expressed by a number of needs (desires), such as: (a)communication, self-expression: to watch people, to listen to them and to talk to them; (b) self-approval: a strive to uphold one's independent position; (c) leadership: to govern other people, to lead after oneself; (d) imitation, subordination: a necessity to believe in the authority, to obey, to imitate; (e) sympathy: to understand another partner's feelings.
There also available the so-called "relation feelings": love, hatred and aggression with their own set of motives and programs. And there is one more need to belong to a herd.
4. Another group is comprised of the "working" reflexes, corresponding to any kind of activity: intellectual curiosity, reflexes of target, freedom and a need to play a game.
Every need can be manifested in two opposite qualities: egoism - altruism; aggression - patience; leadership - subordination; greediness - kindness; isolation - sociability.
Preference of one component can be stipulated by surroundings, personality type and education. However, the second component is always "present" in sub-consciousness; and is ready to join when circumstances change.
It is important to underline genetic priorities of instincts. Of principal importance is saving of one's own life. Reproduction is at the second place. However, at certain periods of reproduction, the latter gets to be of paramount importance.
Herd instinct is positioned at the third place and only sometimes it can dominate over the above-mentioned ones. The numerical expression of priorities ("which one and for how many") depends on the type of personality and education.
Mechanism of upbringing in early childhood can be interpreted as "imperative", later it is accompanied by imitation of authorities: parents, teachers, friends. Further on, it is followed by formation of one's own convictions changing person's needs and their analyzing. The role of teachers and parents is very great but not self-dominating: but self-organization is also present here!
Individuality of a man is determined first of all by one's character. It represents energy of the intellect's "power station": the maximum activity level, determining an ability to strain oneself. Accordingly, will is the program of consciousness concentration and bringing of the chosen FA to an end inspite of the hardships. As to character classification, I distinguish strong, middle and weak character types. In the lune with the basic characteristic features, there are some secondary ones, such as egoism-altruism, pessimism-optimism, realism-dreaminess, impulsiveness-persistence.
Which feelings-demands and desires-programs are considered to be the most important?
1)dependent on the succession of instinct origin in the course of evolution: self-preservation (reproduction, herd instinct);
2)dependent on the personality type and conditions;
3)Dependent on upbringing and education, training and convictions.
Greatest desire -i.e. what one needs for the happiness is called a pretension. However, when some projected goal happens to be achieved, one adapts oneself to it, happiness is diminishing and the motives to action are reducing. To get it all back, new motives forcing new efforts are needed. Consequently, adaptation and pretension growing are the engine of the progress.
Demands of people are contradictory: egoism-altruism; aggressiveness-patience; leadership-subordination; collectivism-individualism. Domination of one of the components depends on the type of a personality, education and conditions. However, the second component is always "present" in the sub-consciousness and is ready to be engaged in case of conditions changing.
Genetic demand priorities in combination with person's character and abilities determine personality's character type. For example, among the strong types there are (a) power-loving (because of leadership); (b) money-grubbers (because of property, greed); (c) researchers (because of intellectual curiosity); (d) heroes (because of rare combination of leadership and altruism. To the weak types belong all subordinates and imitators. And so on.
Leaders are especially important. These very persons but not the great mass of the population determine the progress of society. Besides the above-mentioned "normal" types, there are a number of pathological personality's components with the most intricate combinations. Realization of the born types in the community depend on education (not very strongly), convictions, conditions, return relations in the self-organization system.
Besides "organic" demands, the behavior is being determined by convictions. They are presented by some word patterns, such as: "good - bad", "how it should be".
Convictions comprise morals, ideology and faith. Their value in action motives amount to a quarter of the feeling value. When we add to it a quarter of the altered demands stipulated by education, we shall find out, that organic nature of a human being can be only half changed.
Is it much or little? I believe, rather little. For this very reason, I am convinced in primacy of the biological origin in social deeds.
The amount of needs satisfaction is expressed in integral feelings "pleasant-unpleasant" and Emotional Comfort Level. Extreme points are expressed by emotions: joy, grief, anger:
Feelings and actions of interrelations "From" or "To" are most significant for understanding of the society. Here the return answer is of greatest importance. It leads to friendship or conflict. Up to cruelty.
In 1990 I made an attempt to clear up some quantitative characteristics of human psychology by organizing a questionnaire among experts (psychologists, sociologists, philosophers, teacheres, physicians) through the Literaturnaja Gazetta (Literature Newspaper).
There were offered some concrete questions proceeding from my hypothesis on the thinking mechanisms. More than five thousand answers were received. The processing of 500 answers resulted in the following: Difference of characters, corresponding to their ability to work and leadership made up the ratio 3:1 between the strong and the weak. Upbringing (education, religion, and ideology) could change the natural needs by 25%. The experts made the following conclusion as to the averaged succession of priorities on feelings (needs): pain, fear, hunger, sex, property, communication, leadership, interest, freedom, game. The priorities are different with the strong, the averaged and the weak types.
There are biological ethics roots: need in love, faith, authority, justice, and truth. Side by side with it, there exist cruelty, aggressiveness, and most of all - egoism. It exceeds altruism by 20 %.
Psychology can be manifested in the model of a personality. It sums up the motives and actions stipulated by the society reaction: how the labour is to be paid and how to punish for protests?
Model of a personality presents (in a very simplified way) the system of four equations. From the society: "labour-payment" - is the stimulus. "Labour-weariness" - is obstacle.
From the citizen: "payment-feeling". It shows how "satisfaction" increases with getting payment and decreases because of fatigue (depending on the force of character). After solving the system of equations, it can be determined, how much a person can work, how much it can earn and what Level of Emotional Comfort (i.e.happiness or misfortune) it can acquire.
Simple variant of the model is enlarged with accounting of many needs, introducing a dynamics, i.e. "hope-disappointment" feelings.
Models are made for various activity modes: labour, learning and entertainment with different set of needs. Significant outgoing parameters of the model besides "labour" there are expressions "in favour" and "against", reflecting subject's attitude to the government, ideologies and social groups.
"Generalized personality" models are needed for modeling of a community. Data were received on the basis of sociological questionnaires organized by the newspapers "Nedelya" and "Komsomolskaya Pravda" in 1990-1991.
Nikolay Amosov. My World Outlook.
Translation from Russian into English Kovalchuk Emma